Scaffolding

Instructional scaffolding is a learning process designed to promote a deeper level of learning. It is the support given during the learning process that is tailored to the needs of the student with the intention of helping the student achieve his/her learning goals (Sawyer, 2006).

From Wikipedia:

Scaffolding comes from Lev Vygotsky’s concept of an expert assisting a novice, or an apprentice. Though the term was never used by Vygotsky, interactional support and the process by which adults mediate a child’s attempts to take on new learning has come to be termed “scaffolding.” Scaffolding represents the helpful interactions between adult and child that enable the child to do something beyond his or her independent efforts. A scaffold is a temporary framework that is put up for support and access to meaning and taken away as needed when the child secures control of success with a task.

In expressive arts, where the art-making is child-generated, I use scaffolding with laser precision, though only when appropriate and after I carefully discover what the child has in mind. A combination of knowing the child, the delivery of suggestion, the child’s readiness, and timing go into whether the child will allow for the scaffolding.

A 4 year old made a paper bag puppet with sticker eyes and a wonderful jagged-line mouth. As he’d left the body of the bag bare, I asked if he’d like to make clothes for it. He was excited and chose a piece of fabric. The difficulty of cutting the fabric soon became evident.

I asked if he’d prefer to make it from paper, to which he readily agreed. He chose a piece of orange paper and snipped two triangles off the corners. “Oh look, it’s underpants.” He smiled, recognizing what his cutting had unintentionally created. With that, he carefully cut a long piece of orange masking tape and attached it to the bottom of the bag. He snipped another triangle and called it a hat.

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The boy then decided to use a bench as a puppet theater and taped the puppet to the back of the bench. The little spark that occurred as a result of scaffolding grew into a fire of creativity.

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Often it is the children themselves who scaffold. When a 3 year old shivered in fright and asked me to put away the larger-than-child-sized Turtle puppet, I first explained what it was made of. (fabric, buttons, shoulder pads, etc.). I wanted her to know that it was not alive, although it seemed to be. Then, I folded Turtle back into his shell and put him away on the rocking chair, telling the puppet, “When the children are no longer afraid, you can come out and play.” I used my “Turtle voice” to let the children know that Turtle did hope to become their friend as he’d never, ever hurt them.

I’m not afraid of you,” said one of the children. “I’m going to play with you now. I’ll make something for you. Snowflakes!” She went to the shelf where the stuffing was kept and began to tear it into snowball-sized pieces. She put them all in a paper bag and brought it over to the rocking chair.

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Showering Turtle with snow caught the attention of other children, who then helped her pile snowballs on top of Turtle.

As they played and laughed, the child who had been scared came closer to the large puppet. She whispered to me that she had made something with arms for him. She wanted me to deliver it on him, while she remained at a distance.

As the other children continued to have fun piling the snow, the girl drew closer and closer. Soon, she, too, was putting snow atop Turtle.Image

“We love your shell, Turtle. We wish we could get inside with you. Once we didn’t like you. We were afraid. But now you are our friend.”

Sometimes, an older child can scaffold the next steps with more ease than us adults. An alum visited expressive arts recently. She took a break from puppet making to explore the room. “Turtle,” she said softly, upon discovering her old friend. “I used to love Turtle. I’m still like that.”

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She began to animate the large puppet and interact with the younger children. “Who wants to give me a high five,” she said wiggling Turtle’s fingers. The 3 year olds, who had previously shown no interest in the large and rather unusual puppet, hesitantly came forward. The older girl continued speaking in her “Turtle voice,” and soon those with finished puppets came forward and began playing with Turtle.Image

Later, as she was leaving with a box full of her work, she said with all the wisdom of her 10 years, “I have the brain of a kid and the mind of an artist. Without art, my life is dull.”Image

Product Recommendations from Discount School Supply®:

Make Your Own Animal Puppets – Kit for 12

Colorations® Eye Stickers – 2000 Pieces

9″ x 12″ Colorations® Heavyweight Construction Paper

1/2″ Colored Masking Tape – Set of 10

 

  

 

 

 

  

 

Young Children as Collaborators with Parents and Teachers

I have been reviewing manuscripts written for or with my now-adult daughter from when she was a young child. One is called “Tell Don’t Yell.” In total transparency, twenty years ago, I often expressed myself through yelling when I was frustrated.

People who know me now are amazed that I was ever less than peaceful. Back then, I was less than peaceful, both inside and out. I had to learn how to find the peace I now teach others.

My motivation for change was my beloved 8-year-old daughter’s response to my behavior. “Mom,” she said one day, “Tell don’t yell. When you yell, I feel like you don’t love me anymore.”

Tears spring forth from that memory, which sparked a journey into becoming a more loving parent, a more compassionate teacher and a better person.

“Tell Don’t Yell” was a one of the manuscripts we wrote together. Our collaboration built a bridge between us that my yelling was knocking down. Effective communication between adults and children is something we all desire. Yet, old patterns and habits can be a roadblock.

I can still vividly recall when I attempted to hurry her morning cat-play, so that she’d get to the school bus stop on time. I was sprouting an abundance of words that began to grow louder as my efforts became less effective.

At the exact moment before my amygdala took over and my intellect lost control, my daughter took the cat off her shoulders.

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She stood and looked up at me, her earnest little face illuminated. She spoke aloud her young child wisdom, as if reading a page in our collaboration:

My mother yells too much.

She yells in the kitchen.

She yells in the hall.

I’d be on my way to school right now

If her words weren’t blocking the door.

With that I laughed, hugged my brilliant co-writer and reached for a pen to capture her exact words.

Her words stayed with me until, with consistent motivation and innovation, I learned to tell, not yell.

We all thrive on loving connections. If there is a disconnect between ourselves and our children, we are very capable of initiating a reconnection. While we often feel uncomfortable, ashamed or embarrassed at momentarily “losing it,” we need to forgive ourselves for not being the perfect parents or teachers we’d like to be and move forward. One thing I know to be true: we will always be given another opportunity for more generative communication with our children.

Guidelines for Collaboration:

  • Writing a story or book together is one form of adult/child collaboration.
  • Making up songs together are another way to collaborate. (See June 4, 2013 blog on Spontaneous Song)
  • Improvisation or puppet shows can be extremely fun activities for both adults and children. Here is one activity you can add to your collection of tools.

 Let’s Trade Places (You Can Be Me, I Can Be You)

  • Have the child play the part of the parent or teacher; the adult plays the part of the child.
  • Use a current topic/issue: such as “getting ready for school” for parents; “clean-up time” for teachers.
  • Set the scene: you can have the children determine where it takes place, what has just happened or is about to happen.
  • Allow the children as much responsibility as possible for setting the storyline. With very shy children, they may need prompting. Sometimes, having an extroverted child in a “director’s” role will move the improvisation along. You can also ask for audience suggestions as to “What Happens Next?”
  • In expressing yourselves from each other’s point of view, you come to a better understanding. I’ve had a very accurate mirror of my behavior reflected by children who pretend to be Elyse. Humor is so important when initiating change, reducing conflict or finding creative solutions.

In our collaborative story, Arianna was my teacher. I had daily homework: practicing telling, not yelling. Loving her as I do, I was a very willing and successful student.

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In the years following our collaboration, I’ve dusted that retro chalk dust off my hands and learned to be an effective communicator, especially when frustrated.

Peace in our homes and classrooms begins with us.

Peace,

Elyse

Next Blog: Playing with puppets and children. You’ll receive detailed activities I used in teaching an adult class, Puppetry and Its 500 Hats, at a local university.

Cause for Celebration

“It’s my baby’s birthday today,” she said, rolling a piece of paper into a cone, fixing it in place with colored masking tape.

She decorated the hat with some of the new gems from the Super Gem Pack (GEMPACK) and held it on her stuffy’s head with her hand.
“It’s going to be hard to keep it on her head,” she thought aloud, anticipating the next steps.

I tried scaffolding, making a suggestion to use the elastic cord (ELASCORD). The children create from their imaginations. They are their own authority here in Expressive Arts. 

They choose the materials, their own ideas and how they will bring their inner world to life. I offer suggestions which they feel free to take or discard. 

The idea of using stretchy string appealed to the 5-year-old. “I’ll make some holes,” she told me, taking the hole punch from its tool box on the art cart. Her fine motor skills were well-developed. She easily threaded the elastic cord and tied knots in each hole. She then placed the hat on her baby doll’s head. Smiling, she showed it to her friends. Birthday hat on head she went off to play on the rug area with friends and puppets and stuffies, creating a party inspired by the prop she’d made.

“It’s an ‘i’ see,” said another 5-year-old, tracing the verticle line and the fancy dot of fancy super gems.

I did see and was delighted. I am always amazed at the myriad of ways that children discover to use the same materials.

I love watching the joy on the children’s faces when they discover new materials in the many pull out drawers of Expressive Arts.

Jewels and gems and now super gems are cause for celebration. The children exclaim wildly and then focus their attention on using the new materials. 

I have observed their concentration grow over our time together. A skill that will help these 5-year-olds in their ongoing education and new schools in September.

Having been with many of these children since they were 2-1/2 years old, saying goodbye will not be easy.