Intrinsic Motivation, Resourcefulness and Open-Ended Materials

‘”Loose parts,'” as mentioned in my blog of May 3, 2013, describes a theory first proposed by Simon Nicholson regarding open-ended materials. These materials suggest no fixed direction other than what is imagined by the children themselves. Nicholson, and others who followed him, proposed that these materials empower our creativity.

Focus and concentration are enhanced by combining loose parts with intrinsic motivation, that comes from within the child.

Over a period of several weeks, I observed one five year old’s interest in fabric. She began by covering her feet in cloth squares and wrapping them with colored masking tape. Image

After several sessions of “shoe” making, she chose cardboard from the recycled materials and placed her shoe-covered foot on top. Voila! They became ice skates.Image

She slid around the room on her ice skates with great pleasure. When she returned for the next session, she chose a large piece of cardboard and began decorating it. Instead of fabric, she cut up strips of available paper and again wrapped her feet.Image

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Having a variety of open-ended materials available allowed her to continue pursuing her passionate ideas. This time she created a snowboard.Image

Her confidence and satisfaction with her projects grew with the challenges she gave herself.Image

An article on intrinsic motivation by the National Association of School Psychologists addresses some of the characteristics that develop when children are self-motivated.

  • Persistence: The ability to stay with the task. A highly-motivated child will stay involved for a long period of time. I’ve observed young children work steadily for 1.5 hours and put their project on a saving shelf for additional work at a later time. They learn persistence when they are successful at a challenging task.
  • Confidence: A developing ability to problem solve is the basis for motivation at this stage of development. Having the self-confidence to know that one can solve a problem motivates the learner to accept other new and challenging situations, which in turn leads to greater learning.
  • Independence: The decreased amount of dependency on adults is another indicator of self- motivation. Children with strong intrinsic motivation do not need an adult constantly watching and helping with activities. Since independence is an important aspect of quality learning, this decreased dependence on adults will greatly enhance children’s ability to succeed in school.
  • Positive Emotion: As written in the article, “The last indicator of motivational level is emotion. Children who are clearly motivated will have a positive display of emotion. They are satisfied with their work and show more enjoyment in the activity.”

Concentration and focus are greatly enhanced when children are self-motivated. Providing a variety of open-ended materials for creative expression expands intrinsic motivation. For children to discover and explore their interests and passions at an early age informs their course of self-study and choices for a lifetime.

 

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Recycling the Holidays

Happy New Year!!

If you’re like me and couldn’t discard all that precious holiday wrapping material, here’s a suggestion: offer those cardboard inserts, tubes, wrapping paper and bows to the children for their creative pleasure.Image

Art-making from the recyclables is one way to find enjoyable closure to the holiday season (which seems to be starting earlier each year). After months of excitement and anticipation, having easily-accessible resources for artistic expression diminishes the post-holiday slump.

Guidlines for creating your re-purposing art center:

  • Find containers. Depending on available space and aesthetics, you can use anything from cardboard boxes to beautifully-crafted ones.
  • Let the children sort the materials and place in containers. (Teachers, sending an email to parents will likely unleash an avalanche of resources for the children to sort and use.)Image

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Children’s resourcefulness comes into play as they create from the materials they find around them. Once alerted to this “treasure-finding,” the children themselves will add to their supply. You may need to use the cover of night to do your recycling once children discover the joy of creating with these readily-available materials.

I am often told anecdotes and children’s quotes by the parents. “You’re going to throw that away?! Let’s bring it to school.” Or, “We don’t have to bring all that to Elyse, let’s keep it for making things at home.”

There are families who bring in shopping bags of recyclable material. Parents hold the bag and the children sort and place the items into the containers. When we run out, I have the children draw a picture of what is needed and those who love letters will add words, such as “Wish List” or “Please Bring to Expressive Arts.” In no time, the empty containers are filled again. In this way, the children take some responsibility for claiming Expressive Arts and doing their part to keep the program supplied. Feeling helpful and responsible expands their sense of belonging; being part of a community.

Beyond the fun and creativity, the skill-building, the process or product is the spirit of connection that surfaces. There are many moments in each day when I feel the quiet joy of children creating, collaborating and assisting each other. I become aware of the community spirit flowing to and from the classroom and am so grateful to still be teaching 28 years from the program’s conception. This idea of children, their families and teachers working together creatively is a simple means for modeling a better, more peaceful world.Image

Wishing you all Peace and Plenty in 2014.

Love,

Elyse

Puppets, Puppets, Puppets

“Where are the paper bags“?” a 3 year old shouts immediately upon entering the room. I show where they are kept on the art cart and he brings a handful to the table.

“Where are the eyes? We need eyes, lots of eyes”!” cries another, as I bring the wiggly eyes down from a higher shelf. Some things are purposefully out of reach of the youngest. When it comes to small items, for safety sake, I like to keep my own eye on their usage. While these same materials were used in previous puppet-making sessions, as loose parts they can be used in many ways.

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“It’s a smile, a green smile,” laughs another child placing a piece of colored masking tape directly on the table underneath two pink eyes she’d chosen. She continues taping around her work, saying, “It’s a bus. He’s riding a bus.” I chuckle at the little creature she’s brought to life with only wiggly eyes, tape and her own inventiveness.

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I try not to ask questions that might interrupt or define their creativity, but sometimes I am unable to contain myself. As one 4 year old confessed about his “potty-talk,” “It just popped out.”

“Are you making puppets?” “popped out” to a resounding “Yesssssss” from several of the children.

As paper bags and wiggly eyes have been recently added to our open-ended “staples” in the art cart, I notice the 2-3 year olds choosing them repeatedly. Having materials from favorite activities available and accessible to the children encourages extended focus, exploring, self-direction and independence.

With accessibility and choice, many children are taking greater risks in their puppet making. Previously, only eyes and perhaps a smile were represented by most of the children. Now, they are elaborating on their creations.

They often choose materials that build on their last experience. They also taste (sometimes quite literally) the materials brought to the table by other children. Besides the staples, offering new materials adds excitement. More children become interested in the process as different materials are introduced.

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I watch another 3 year old deliberately choose and place his materials on a paper bag. The face itself was made from a piece of fabric that had been donated that morning by a parent. She was recycling her son’s Rainbow Ghost Halloween costume, which included the striped sheet and wild, fake fur. Colored sticks became the catalyst for the “matching” stripes on his puppet’s clothing.

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It was delightful to witness the creativity shown by the child. This 3 year old had found a way to express himself uniquely. That’s the beauty of open-ended materials. Who would have imagined creating both a smile and striped clothes using the colored sticks.

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I’ve offered some of the same materials for decades and continue to be surprised by how each child uses them. As teachers, we provide the materials and assist as skills are being mastered. The children provide the endless creativity and imagination.

A 2 year old is mastering two skills, stringing beads and cutting sticky tape. Using the beads (also kept high), she made a necklace for her puppet and a shiny pipe cleaner. She then went back to the task of cutting the desired length of tape without tangling it. Children often take natural breaks and work on another part of their project. Those who persevere with neither breaks nor success have an opportunity to learn a new feeling for their emotional literacy vocabulary: frustration. This then becomes an opportunity for group learning, with the children volunteering what helps them when frustrated.

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Having observed these young children stay focused on their puppets for almost an hour of joyful creating, I felt hopeful and optimistic about the state of our future world. I couldn’t help but think of how this self-directed play could be added to their repertoire of peaceful expression in their lifetime of learning toolbox.

SUGGESTIONS:

Your open-ended supplies, such as colored tape, wiggly eyes, feathers, string, yarn, oil pastels, paper, paper bags and markers can be supplemented with gathered and parent/community donated materials.

Families are very willing to bring in offerings for the children’s art making. You may want to post or let parents know of your wish list. Beautiful wrapping paper, small cardboard boxes, packing foam, anything that does not dictate how it is to be used is a resource for the children’s creativity.

We do not need to constantly change the loose parts, fearing the children will become bored. Their resourcefulness will utilize the same materials in many different ways. They have the capacity to expand their art-making as far as their imaginations will take them.

Product Recommendations from Discount School Supply®:

Rainbow or White Paper Craft Bags

Colored Masking Tape

Black Wiggly Eyes – 1000 Pieces

Super Feather Classroom Pack

Colorations® Acrylic Yarn- Set of 12

Colorations® Outstanding Oil Pastels – Set of 28

Lightweight Construction Paper, 9″ x 12″ – 500 Sheets

Colorations® Mini Dabber Dot Markers – Set of 24

Observing and Sharing Competencies

Our school was recently graced with early childhood expert Deb Curtis, who did a presentation for a staff development workshop. One aspect of her “thinking lens” for reflection is that of children’s competencies. (Harvest Resources Associates)

Observing children’s actions through the lens of what they were capable of, including what we don’t initially see as such, sparked my thinking.

While we often share with parents and other staff members anecdotes about children’s learning, less often do we bring the children themselves into the conversation. Since Deb’s presentation, I have been increasing my comments directly to the children.

In particular, I am noticing the growth in what they are able to accomplish. Sometimes I offer them a memory, such as, “I remember when you were learning to cut tape. It’s not easy to work with sticky masking tape that often gets stuck on the scissor or tangled before you can attach it.”

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“You were so proud. I remember you shouting, ‘I did it!’ You kept cutting more and more pieces, and shouting, ‘I did it!’ each time. Then you learned to use the tape to connect tubes. Your smile was just as wide as when you learned to cut tape. And now, you can create amazing designs with those same materials. You’re still using tubes and tape. But, look what you are able to do with them!”

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From making designs with tubes and tape, this same child stretched his exploring to create designs with the tape itself.

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Another child, who had recently become interested in recycled materials, quickly began to expand the size and purpose of his art. He went from handheld objects to those he could put his whole body into.

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E-mailing home photos and text of observations and appreciations widens the circle of encouragement. It brings in the perspectives of the parents and family members and strengthens the bridge between school and home.

By modeling appreciation for their growth and authenticity, we give children a framework for valuing their own experience and learning. Hopefully, it can assist in creating a structure not based on comparison with others, but rather on appreciating their own interest, progress and mastery. By doing this, we help set our children on course for a lifetime of authentic learning, as well as greater inner peace and happiness.

GUIDELINES:

1. Observations:

Making time to observe the world of children and what they are mastering is invaluable. While I am privileged to work with small groups, where witnessing each child’s learning is simpler, the classroom teachers have observations built into their schedules. Hats off to the leadership of our director!

For those of you who are interested in this practice, I have a couple of suggestions:

  • Work with your teammates to create a regular observation time. You could observe a small group of children, while your teammates have the remainder of the children in your outside space. While a 1/2 hour is recommended, even 15 minutes will be of benefit.
  • If separating the group to be observed is not possible, have your teammates be responsible for the majority of the children while you observe a smaller group. Trading off being the observer will keep things fair.
  • You might want to wear a sign that designates you as an observer so that the children get used to your silent witnessing. At first, they will likely ask you lots of questions and try to engage you. You can let them know that you’re doing important work: watching all the amazing things they do. You can tell them that you’d be glad to share your observations with them afterwards.

2. Recycled and Open Ended Materials

The same recycled materials can be an ongoing source of engagement for children. I remember thinking that the children would never stay interested in toilet paper and paper towel tubes. I am happy to report my error. These easily collected loose parts remain favorites.

For lenses of observation and many other wonderful ways of viewing children’s play as connected to learning and development theories and research, I enthusiastically recommend Reflecting Children’s Lives: A Handbook for Planning Your Child-Centered Curriculum by Deb Curtis and Margie Carter (Redleaf Press, 2011).

A B C D: Fostering interest in reading and writing through the expressive arts

Inside one of the art cart’s drawers are the alphabet beads. The children use them in many different ways, connecting them by elastic string or pipe cleaner if they want to take them home.

I observed one three year old begin by writing an M on a piece of Manila paper. Matching an M from the letter drawer, he shouted enthusiastically, “M for me!” Indeed it was, as M is the first letter of his name: Matthew.

His delight was evident as he proclaimed, “I’m sooo happy.”

“What makes you so happy, “I asked? “School!  I’m so happy with my teachers and my friends. School!”

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He began using other letters, sounding them out and laughing. “This is a wacky game,” he stated as he realized the letters formed funny sounds. I was amazed at his ability to sound out the random letters. I asked if he did this at home. He nodded.

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He then noticed and asked about the letters on our art cart of loose parts. (Loose Parts: See blog of May 3, 2013: Open Ended Creativity)  Children from previous years, also interested in letters, had used colored tape to make the first letter of what was contained inside the drawers.  As the materials often change, at times the letters do not match.

“That’s an X,” said the boy, clearly puzzled, as he looked inside at the envelopes.

“Do you want to help me change the letter,” I asked. He did and directed the making of an E.

“You did it,” he cheered as the E became recognizable.

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I like to have letters, in many forms, included in our art cart of loose parts. Those who are interested will choose them, others will choose additional materials. As I see the children each year they attend preschool, I’m privileged to watch their interests grow and change.

One child who made letters using colored tape when he was three, (Photo in blog of May 3, 2013) now, at four, is able to sound out and write the words “Justin’s heart for mommy” on a large sheet of construction paper.

The heart activity emerged when I was asked by another child to draw them a heart. Instead, I showed her how to create one of her own by folding a paper in half and drawing and cutting on a curved line. Those interested mastered cutting along the drawn line and unfolding the paper to discover the heart. “Draw LOVE on your heart, “ Justin said. When the other child wasn’t interested in writing, he decided to make a heart of his own. Image

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When left to pursue what engages them, the children have a diverse range of interests. While these two children were very interested in letters, others are not. Those who develop their interest early become the teachers when their peers are ready.

Later, when other children ask me how to form letters, I ask those who have mastered the skill to teach their friends. (blog of August 1, 2013: Young Children as Mentors)

On the preschool level, readiness is the key to mastering new skills. Being able to make choices according to individual interest paves the way for a lifetime of learning.

GUIDELINES FOR PARENTS AND TEACHERS:

In blog of April 8, 2013, I wrote of setting up open ended materials and tools for working with colored masking tape, elastic cord, glue sticks, scissors, etc.  I keep the loose parts in an art cart but, there are many other options for containing materials.

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Having letters and/or numbers also available as loose parts will offer additional opportunities as their interest in reading and writing grows. Children who may not appear to be interested in writing, may surprise us by their interest in forming words and names when letters, such as the alphabet beads, are available in your expressive arts center.

Being able to work with many open ended material, and having them available to use in different ways than traditionally intended, furthers children’s creativity. Their confidence is built by our recognition and appreciation of how they express themselves.

Working within small groups, where we can be present as a child’s ideas emerge is another joyful aspect of teaching young children.

Product Recommendations from Discount School Supply®:

Colored Masking Tape – 1 Roll (Item #34CMT)

Supply Cabinet (Item #X9510JC)

Set of all 10 Packs – Colorations® Colored Pipe Cleaners (Item #IPCSET)

Colorations® Construction Paper Classroom Pack – 2500 Sheets (Item #MAJORPAK)

Preschool Puzzles – Letters, Numbers and Signs – Set of 6 (Item #PREPZST6)

NEXT: More on larger projects with loose parts and recycled materials

Story-Making: Storytelling with Puppets and Art

“Here Crow, come and sit in this chair while I make your sparkly babies,” said the very articulate three year old to the puppet she just befriended. “When the blue comes alive, then it will be done.”

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She was referring to the sparkly blue pipe cleaners she was twisting into the shape of a baby bird for the crow puppet.

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Soon, three other children joined her in building a nest for Crow and the sparkly babies. Afterwards they flew the crows around the room and then return to nest building.

Story-making is what I call this version of improvisational storytelling. They may begin with a puppet or start with a prop, as illustrated by the “sparkly babies.” The making of the prop opens the creative door for puppet improvisation. And the improvisation produces the need for more props to add to the play.

Story-making is a process of using collaborative puppet play, art from loose parts (see blog of May 15, 2013.) and the children’s imaginations to create a story that comes to life. They act in it, stop to make props and puppets, and then return to the story. At times there is an informal audience, watching. Usually, there are only the adult observers, us, enjoying the “show.”

In 1996, story-making began as a practice to encourage cooperative play. The children used puppets, props and improvisations. It was also used to develop oral language and storytelling with small groups of children. Decades later, small groups of children still enjoy adding this form of storytelling to their play.

The meaningful play initiated by this three year old continued beyond the classroom. She made an owl with her mom at her older sister’s school. She brought it to school, days later, so that “Owl “could be friends with “Crow.” Friendship is a very important theme with preschoolers.

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Not only did the children play with her owl but, they were inspired to make puppets of their own.

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“Where’s his smile?” a child asked, studying her paper bag puppet. She picked up an oil pastel and drew a line under the sticky eyes she’d placed on the brown lunch bag. “Oh, that’s a sad face,” she frowned at the curved line she had drawn.

She tried again saying hesitantly, “That’s a happy face.” Observing her attempts to make the line curve upwards she said, “No, it’s a mustache. Let’s call him Grandpa Owl. He’s the sparkly babies’ grandfather.”

She then placed the newest owl in the rocking chair and took down the Crow puppet from its window seat. “They’re friends and are going to have a play date.”

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She then placed the bag puppet on her hand and flew it over to the table. Taking it off, she was delighted to see that it remained vertical. “I didn’t know a paper owl could stand up!” she exclaimed gleefully.

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These improvisational stories allow the youngest children to play out their first flights of independence from their own “nests” via the preschool experience.  Stories are not only important teachers, they inform us of what the children themselves find most meaningful including making friends and inviting them home for play dates.

GUIDELINES:

I. Collaborative Puppet Play:

  1. Initiating Ideas: you can introduce a specific theme, such as making friends, inclusion/exclusion or being kind, by either telling about something that happened between the puppets or acting it out for the children yourself. (see September 16, 2013 blog: Playing with Puppets and Children)

Having been a witness and facilitator of the children’s developmentally appropriate conflict, teachers and parents can show or tell what happened between the children using puppets. When you come to places of choice, ask the children for suggestions.

Once you’ve gathered some of the children’s own ideas and contributed some wise ones of your own, it’s the children’s turn to use the puppets.

Being creative yourself and knowing your children, you will think of many different ways to get started. Once the children are engaged, you become the observer, facilitating when necessary.

  1. Art-Making: Depending on the kind of puppets used, you could suggest that the children first make something for the puppets, as the 3 year old began by making nests and sparkly babies for Crow.
  1. Back to puppet play: Sometimes the children will do this naturally. Otherwise, you can facilitate by interviewing a puppet. Your scaffolding brings out both the character of the puppet and moves the story line along. There are no expectations for a complete story in collaborative puppet play. Children combine improvisations or story pieces with art-making and decide when the activity is complete.

Teaching moments will likely occur.  Feel free to insert yourself into the story if there’s an important point to make.  Otherwise, step back and enjoy the good work you’ve done readying the children for creative collaboration. The story-making can continue as long as the children stay engaged.

II. Materials:

Materials are made available for the children’s use during their play. Depending on the puppets used, materials may reflect their environments, food, etc. Loose parts for puppet-making can be included, as the children often spontaneously create more puppets during or after their play.

Some examples of materials: Small paper bags, colored feathers, self-adhesive eyes, glue sticks, colored paper, colored Popsicle sticks, colored masking tape, yarn, string, shiny pipe cleaners and any other loose parts you have or can gather.

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Next time you take out the materials, they may go back to the same story or create a new one, with more of what is meaningful to them disclosed.

Witnessing the children’s exploration with puppets is so joyful. No wonder I am beginning my 28th year of learning with them.

Playing with Puppets and Children

Here we are, back to school! You’ve likely prepared in many ways to create a comfortable atmosphere for the children new to your classroom. You may already use puppets to bridge the gap into the children’s world and help welcome them. If you don’t, this topic is especially for you.

Working with young children, you are already masters of improvisation. Working with puppets can be a natural extension of what you do every day.

Some of us are natural animators. We can pick up a sock, a stuffed animal, or a piece of cheese and give it a voice and movement. At the other end of the scale are those of us who are intimidated by using puppets in our classrooms or homes. We may feel self-conscious or simply think it is out of our skill range. But, if there’s even a spark of desire to use puppets, it’s worth navigating the process of getting comfortable with using them.

The concepts and practices I’m sharing were developed for a class at San Francisco State University. At the time, I was performing with life-sized woven puppets, including one called Ms. Tree. She was a scary and very unusual looking tree (birds were afraid to nest in her branches).

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I often used Ms. Tree to illustrate making friends with what or who we are afraid of. Getting to know those who appear different from us encourages inclusion. (Of course, for preschoolers on the first day of school, I’d suggest using a friendlier-looking puppet.)

To Begin:

Before engaging in collaborative puppet play with children, let’s prepare ourselves with solo adult play. Start by choosing a puppet that you are attracted to. Your home or classroom likely offers many choices. There are many inexpensive and expressive ones that you can purchase. You can also make one of your own from socks, material scraps, or found/recycled materials.

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I. GETTING COMFORTABLE WITH YOUR PUPPET

Before engaging with the children, you will need to get comfortable with your puppet. Start by noticing your own levels of comfort or discomfort as you get ready to play with your puppet. If puppetry is a new tool, you will gain valuable insight into what we ask children to do day after day.

Our own experience deepens our understanding of what children may experience. It’s certainly helped me gain greater compassion for their resilience and willingness for ongoing learning. Our adult play becomes a bridge to the child’s world. An additional benefit of naming and navigating our emotions is that it becomes an avenue of developing the puppets character.

Remember dancing endlessly in front of your adolescent mirror before going out on the dance floor? Practice at home. When most uncomfortable, I think of all the things we ask children to do that they’ve never done before. It also gives me insight into the many ways we can respond to something new. And then I practice until the awkwardness diminishes.

Movement:

There is a range of movement that will be unique to each puppet. Play with it; see what is possible. Does it have a full body that is capable of varied movement you can explore? Or are there only a few parts of the puppet that are moveable? Does it have a mouth that opens when you speak? Or will you have to demonstrate who is talking by some gesture or slight movement when it interacts with another puppet?

Voice:

Explore and find a voice you can sustain without strain. I’ve discovered some varied and interesting voices through trying on different ones, but some chatty puppets cause my voice to strain. You want to enjoy this and create as much ease as possible.

Once you find a voice that fits your vocal range, you can strengthen it by having the puppet become a “tour guide.” Move through your home, having it point out things of interest. You can have it tell stories of where items came from. Using memories or future plans, let your puppet speak aloud. It may seem awkward at first, but it is all part of gaining a certain level of comfort before you leap into working with children.

Developing a Character:

If we are willing to lean into either our discomfort or our sense of fun and curiosity, we will discover everything we need to enliven our puppets.

Feeling shy? Have the puppet move in ways that express this through movement or voice. Would it hide behind you? Whisper to you? Stay inside its shell? I’ve made a family of turtles that I’ve used for years to express both shyness and “sticking your neck out.”

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How would your puppet move if frustrated, angry, sad, insecure or excited? Use the feelings you notice in yourself to give life to the puppet. The feelings we embody are also expressed through behavior we’ve observed from the children themselves. The puppets become relatable to the children when you enliven them in this way.

II. STRETCHING BEYOND YOUR COMFORT LEVEL

Once you are comfortable, you’re ready to have your puppet interact with children. You might want to start with one or two children. It could be your own, your neighbor’s, young relatives or any of the children new to your classroom.

What Makes You Feel Better:
Have the children interview the puppet. In the process you’ll continue to develop its character. You can pretend the puppet is a new student at school. It can be the puppet’s first day as well. Have it express the myriad of feelings a child may have from withdrawal to elation.

With a withdrawn child, you can have the puppet ask for help. “What makes you feel better when feeling shy or uncertain?” The puppet may have to supply the answers, asking whether holding a stuffy, sitting on a lap, drawing a picture or writing a letter home to parents helps. In the process of the interview, you will learn much about what makes that child more comfortable.

When You Were My Age:
Have the children ask something they’d like to know about the puppet when it was their age. There are no incorrect answers. You might want to use your own childhood or those of your children.

Again, you may prefer to have the puppet whisper to you as if shy, and you speak the answers. Empathy develops with the puppet as you express more of how it feels and speaks of childhood events. Expressing vulnerability and transparency through the puppet is a way to create rapport between child and puppet

III. READY, SET, LEAP

Chatting with Puppets:

I often use this exercise for the first day of school and many of the days that follow.

Children will often talk to puppets with more ease and confidence than they might an adult new to their life. They are more open and willing to share their thoughts and feelings. A puppet is a “door” into a child’s world.

The more you practice and play with your puppet and children, the more you’ll learn about it. As you build its character, it takes on a life of its own. At times, I am convinced that I’m simply standing back and watching. I often have to stop myself from laughing aloud at the unplanned antics.

Each of us has a reservoir of creativity within. We also have a storehouse of behaviors that we’ve observed in our children. Some of us will intentionally emulate the children and some of us will intuitively call forth movement, gestures and often the children’s own words.

In the process of playing with puppets and children, you may find great enjoyment, fun and possibly a new passion!

Resource: Jacobs, Elyse. “Puppet Play Explores Feelings and Emotions,” Scholastic Pre-K Today, 1989.

Below are some product recommendations, from Discount School Supply, to get you started:

Excellerations™ Tabletop Puppet Theater

Excellerations™ Standing Puppet Theater

Animal Hand Puppets – Set of 12

Around The World Puppets – Set of 6

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